Risk of serious adverse events associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in orthopaedic surgery. A protocol for a systematic review
Background: Postoperative pain is a common condition following orthopaedic surgeries and causes prolonged hospitalization, delayed rehabilitation, and hamper quality of life. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective analgesics and anti-inflammatory mediators in the treatment of postoperative pain. The association of NSAIDs with serious adverse events may however keep some clinicians and clinical decision makers from using NSAIDs perioperatively. The evidence regarding the risks of serious adverse events following perioperative use of NSAIDs in orthopaedic surgery is sparse and needs to be assessed in a systematic review. This is a protocol for a systematic review that aims to identify the risks of serious adverse events from perioperative use of NSAIDs in orthopaedic patients.
Methods: Our methodology is based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols and the eight-step assessment procedure suggested by Jakobsen and colleagues. We wish to assess if NSAIDs versus placebo, usual care, or no intervention, will influence the risks of serious adverse events in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery. We will include all randomised trials assessing the use of NSAIDs perioperatively. To identify trials we will search the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Excerpta Medica database, Cochrane Central Register, Science Citation Index Expanded on Web of Science, and BIOSIS. Two authors will screen the literature and extract data. We will use the “Risk of Bias 2 tool” to assess trials. Extracted data will be analysed using RStudio and Trial Sequential Analysis. We will create a “Summary of Findings”-table in which we will present our primary and secondary outcomes. We will assess the quality of evidence using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE).
Discussion: This systematic review can potentially aid clinicians and clinical decision makers in the use of NSAIDs for treatment of postoperative pain following orthopaedic surgeries.